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Illustrated checklist of species of Amanita found in
Gros Morne National Park & other sites on the Island of Newfoundland
& in southern Labrador

Rodham E. Tulloss
P. O. Box 57, Roosevelt, New Jersey 08555-0057, USA

The following is based upon material collected during September and early October in the years 2003 through 2006 in and around Gros Morne National Park during and prior to annual fungal forays of the Humber Natural History Society (HNHS). Additional exsiccata supplied by Dr. Andrus Voitk (HNHS) have been utilized for a better coverage of the entire mushroom season; these come from Island of Newfoundland in general as well as from southern Labrador (dwarf willow and seed, photo on right).

At present, this list contains 24 possibly distinct taxa. There are probably some taxa represented more than once in this list, and these cases are noted in the entries for the relevant taxa.   Two numbered taxa (sp. NFL4 and sp. NFL5) are omitted for the moment because the relevant data is poor.   There are probably additional taxa not yet recorded.

The list includes some taxa that appear to be circumarctic or nearly circumarctic in distribution -- e.g., A. groenlandica -- and others that, at present, are only known from the region in question.

Terms and definitions:  DAOM is the Index Herbariorum Code for the Agriculture Canada Herbarium (Ottawa).   Definitions of biometric variables can be found through the link at the top of this page.   Links on species names connect the reader to relevant species pages.

Vascular plants of special interest: Empetrum spp.  

Habitats of special interest: Empetrum heath: "barrens found on exposed coastal headlands and inlands ridges at altitudes approaching the treeline. Empetrum heath is dominated by carpets of black or pink crowberry, which belong to the genus Empetrum." [Definition taken from Northern Peninsula Ecoregion Brochure.]


Amanita subgenus Amanita (spores inamyloid)

Amanita sect. Amanita -- Fruiting body developing in eccentric position (above center) in primordium; hence, stipe with a bulb at the base; lacking a saccate volva.   Although data is absent for several taxa, all taxa in this group should be suspected of containing ibotenic acid, muscimol, or similar compounds.   All photographs for this section are by R. E. Tulloss.
 
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1. base of Table Mountain, Isl. of Newfoundland  

  1. albocreata G. F. Atk.   Bulb with ocreate volva; stipe exannulate from the outset; basidia with few or no clamps; pileus white to off-white with yellow to tan disc and rather long (50% of radius) marginal striations (often tuberculate striate); occurring with dwarf Betula and Larix laricina instead of its suppposed mainland symbiontTsuga canadensis; spores [121/6/6] (7.3-) 7.7 - 9.5 (-11.6) 6.6 - 8.4 (-9.4) m, (L = 8.1 - 9.0 m; L = 8.7 m; W = 7.1 - 8.1 m; W = 7.6 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.04 - 1.23 (-1.32); Q = 1.10 - 1.16; Q = 1.14).   [ image 1 ]


    2. Vermont, USA  

  2. frostiana (Peck) Sacc.   Basidiocarp usually small (expanded cap often fitting with palm of adult hand), pileus yellow-orange to orange, with universal veil yellow to cream; universal veil less prominent on stipe and bulb, often cothurnate; basidia frequently have clamps; spores globose to subglobose, [199/10/6] (7.5-) 8.5 - 10.5 (-12.5) (7.5-) 7.8 - 9.8 (-11.3) m, (L = (8.5-) 9.0 - 9.6 m; L = 9.2 m; W = (8.1-) 8.5 - 9.2 m; W = 8.7 m; Q = 1.0 - 1.12 (-1.17); Q = (1.04-) 1.05 - 1.08; Q = 1.06) [compare to A. flavoconia , below (with spores amyloid)]. [image 2 ]


    3. Kill Devil Camp, Isl. of Newfoundland

  3. muscaria var. guessowii Vesel.   Basidiocarp sometimes very large; pileus yellow to yellow with red-orange disc to orange, with universal veil yellow to cream to pale tan often in multiple floccose to firm rings around the lower stipe and upper bulb, sometimes with cothurnate volva as well; spores [120/6/6] (7.0-) 8.7 - 12.2 (-14.8) (5.9-) 6.5 - 8.2 (-9.5) m, (L = 9.2 - 11.4 m; L = 10.5 m; W = 7.1 - 7.8 m; W = 7.5 m; Q = (1.09-) 1.27 - 1.56 (-1.70); Q = 1.30 - 1.49; Q = 1.42); with Picea.   [ image 3 ]


4.

  1. praecox Y. Lamoureux nom. prov.  (=Amanita sp. 32 [Tulloss])  Yellow with a disk that becomes fulvous or at least darker after collecting, white or pallid at margin, with universal veil absent or as white, cottony patch; stipe soon exannulate; basidia without basal clamps; nearly always associated with hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) or northern hardwoods; one of the first amanitas to appear in June; spores globose to subglobose, [286/14/13] (6.3-) 7.3 - 9.8 (-12.6) (5.6-) 7.0 - 9.1 (-11.9) m, (L = (7.6-) 7.9 - 9.3 m; L = 8.6 m; W = (7.1-) 7.3 - 8.4 m; W = 7.9 m; Q = 1.0 - 1.17 (-1.42); Q = 1.05 - 1.10 (-1.11); Q = 1.08).   [ image 4 ]


    5.

  2. wellsii (Murrill) Murrill   Pileus salmon to orange, fading with age, with universal veil present as a yellow powdery layer; stipe often yellow, bearing weakly structured median partial veil (often deciduous), universal veil never limbate. Known from north of the tree line in eastern Canada with Alnus and in a variety of heaths with dwarf Betula, dwarf Salix, Empetrum, and/or Vaccinium; elsewhere, associates may include Vaccinium (in cultivated blueberry fields), Betula, Populus, and (?)conifers.  The central Appalachians is the known southern limit of this taxon's range.  Note the degree of fading due to exposure to sunlight in the pilei depicted above.  Spores: [395/19/14] (8.7-) 10.5 - 13.8 (-18.0) (4.9-) 5.6 - 8.4 (-10.8) m, (L = (10.6-) 11.5 - 13.0 (-13.2) m; L = 12.0 m; W = (5.3-) 6.7 - 7.6 (- 8.6) m; W = 7.1 m; Q = (1.39-) 1.50 - 1.94 (-2.62); Q = (1.52-) 1.62 - 1.76 (-1.92); Q = 1.69).  [ image 5 ]


Amanita sect. Caesareae - None known from the province.   Closest known records are from southern Quebc.


Amanita sect. Vaginatae -- Universal veil saccate and membranous or originally saccate, but friable or becoming friable and then pulverulent to submembranous and eventually graying/darkening entirely or on either the inner or outer surface of the volval remnants.  Photographs are by R. E. Tulloss unless otherwise indicated.
 
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  1. flavescens (E. J. Gilbert & S. Lund.) Contu, cf.   Stipe usually without marked patterning; pileus Yellow Buff, with striations (in European material of A. flavescens) 5-20% of radius; subhymenium dominated by inflated cells only locally, with many basidia arising from uninflated hyphal segments; occurring with Betula; spores [20?/1/1] 9.1 - 10.7 (-11.0) 8.0 - 9.3 (-10.5) m, (L = 10.1 m; W = 9.0 m; Q = 1.09 - 1.15; Q = 1.13).
    [Note: Spores of the true European Amanita flavescens measure [108/6/3] (8.4-) 9.0 - 12.6 (-17.6) (7.4-) 8.0 - 10.6 (-14.1) m, (L = 9.6 - 11.5 m; L = 10.6 m; W = 8.6 - 9.6 m; W = 9.2 m; Q = (1.02-) 1.05 - 1.29 (-1.58); Q = 1.12 - 1.20; Q = 1.15).]
    [Note: I have some concern that the single specimen on which this entry is based had abnormally small spores; hence, see also A. sp. NFL8, below.]


    7. Labrador - Andrus Voitk  
      

  2. groenlandica Bas ex Knudsen & Borgen.   Basidiome sometimes with rather stocky habit, sometimes more gracile; stipe surface is decorated with pale dirty gray brown, pale grayish buff, pale grayish, or pale brown floccose girdles becoming darker when bruised; universal veil fragile and easily disrupted; limbus internus is fibrillose when present; pileus not virgate, olivaceous pr grayish yellow at first, taking on darker tones of brown (often from disc outward)with exposure and aging, bleached specimens (as in the image above) now known from both Greenland and Isl. of Newfoundland, with striations occupying 10-20% of pileus radius; subhymenium with plentiful inflated cells; in Labrador in Empetrum heath with dwarf Betula and dwarf Salix.   Spores (combined with those from Greenland including type and paratypes) measure [360/18/14] (7.8-) 9.4 - 13.0 (-23) (7.3-) 8.2 - 11.8 (-16.0) m, (L = (9.7-) 10.3 - 11.8 (- 12.2) m; L = 11.1 m; W = (8.7-) 9.3 - 10.8 m; W = 10.0 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.02 - 1.22 (-1.44); Q = ( 1.07-) 1.08 - 1.12 (-1.16); Q = 1.11).   [Note: Photograph by Dr. Andrus Voitk.]   [ image 7 ]


     

  3. groenlandica Bas ex Knudsen & Borgen, cf.   Basidiome usually more gracile than in typical A. groendlandica gracile; cap margin pale straw-color when young; marginal striations up to 35% of pileus radius:   [25/2/1](8.5-) 9.3 - 14.2 (-14.5) (8.2-) 8.5 - 12.5 (-14.0) m, (L = 11.2 - 11.7 m; L = 11.4 m; W = 10.5 - 10.7 m; W = 10.6 m; Q = 1.03 - 1.15 (-1.18); Q = 1.07 - 1.10;Q = 1.08); known from Isl. of Newfoundland only from two sites in or near bog on trails west and north of Western Brook Pond.   Sample vegetation (non-dwarf tree taxa all stunted):  Abies balsamea, Alnus rugosa, dwarf Betula sp., Larix laricina, Saracenia purpurea, Sphagnum sp., Vaccinium sp., etc. on islet in bog.
    [Note: The true A. groenlandica has been determined from a 2006 Labrador collection; see immediately above.]


     

  4. islandica Melot, cf. Pileus white often rapidly becoming sordid, with striations short (often less than 20% of radius); stipe having floccose-pulverulent sheath from apex downward for up to 50 mm, often with a thickened region at its lower border; Newfoundland material tentatively determined as this species comprises fruiting bodies much smaller than typically seen in Icelandic and Scandinavian specimens of A. islandica; spores [100/4/4] (8.8-) 9.3 - 13.2 (-15.0) (8.0-) 8.4 - 11.5 (-14.5) m, (L = 9.8 - 12.0 m; L = 11.2 m; W = 9.0 - 10.5 m; W = 9.9 m; Q = (1.03-) 1.05 - 1.30 (-1.53); Q = 1.09 - 1.19; Q = 1.14); with Betula alone, Betula and Corylus, or Betula with admixture of conifers.


    10. Amanita vaginata var. alba (NFL) - Dr. Andrus VoitkAmanita vaginata var. alba sensu E N. American authors - Dr. Andrus Voitk

  5. vaginata var. alba sensu auct. amer. orient.  Photograph copyright 2007 by Dr. Andrus Voitk.  Pileus white and not becoming sordid; stipe lacking floccose-pulverulent sheath.  With universal veil white, not graying, but often torn and imperfect at stipe base and sometimes leaving torn patches on the pileus; occurring with ??.  Spores (from New Jersey specimens): [14/1/1] 9.5 - 11.0 (-13.0) (8.3-) 8.8 - 10.0 (-10.3) m, (L = 10.4 m; W = 9.2 m; Q = (1.06-) 1.07 - 1.21 (-1.22); Q = 1.12).  Spores (from European specimens):  [100/4/4] (8.6-) 9.8 - 12.8 (-17.0) (7.0-) 8.5 - 12.0 (-13.5) m, (L = 10.8 - 11.9 m; L = 11.4 m; W = 9.5 - 11.0 m; W = 10.3 m; Q = (1.02-) 1.04 - 1.22 (-1.82); Q = 1.08 - 1.14; Q = 1.11).  [ image 10 ]


     

  6. species NFL1. This number is based on material in DAOM that was collected in 1954 at Crater Lake, Labrador (92 - 96 km southwest of Saglek). Pileus silvery gray, 15 - 30 mm wide, edge may become yellowish with age; lamellae rounded at margin, whitish to light tan to pinkish tan; stipe 5 - 10 mm thick, exannulate, white above, gray below, volva breaks into small patches or large warts; at least sometimes occurring in dense moss spores on "coarse ground moraine," about 610 m elevation; spores [40/2/2] (9.3-) 9.8 - 12.3 (-13.2) (8.5-) 8.6 - 11.0 (-12.5) m, (L = 10.5 - 11.7 m; L = 11.1 m; W = 9.6 - 10.4 m; W = 10.0 m; Q = 1.05 - 1.22 (-1.25); Q = 1.10 - 1.13; Q = 1.11).   [Note: Compare to the better documented Amanita sp. NFL10, below.]


  7. species NFL2 "Andrus pinky."  Pileus cream with faint pinkish and faint sordid tints away from disc, with disc pale brownish orange, with striations 20-25% of radius; stipe decorated with a mixture of orangish white fibers in "chevron" or "snake skin" pattern in upper half and orangish white shreds of felted material in the quarter of the stipe just below the midpoint; spores [20/1/1] (9.4-) 10.3 - 12.2 (8.2-) 9.2 - 10.9 (-22.0) m, (L = 11.2 m; W = 10.0 m; Q = (1.04-) 1.08 - 1.18; Q = 1.12); with Abies balsamea, Alnus, and Juniperus. [Compare to material collected in Maine and given the herbarium identifier A. sp. N26 [Tulloss]. In this checklist, see also Amanita sp. NFL7.]


     

  8. species NFL3.   Pileus grayish brown at first, dark brown at maturity, with striations 25-40% of radius; lamellae marginate; stipe with black fibrils; subhymenial base without notably inflated cells (e.g., slightly inflated, intercalary hyphal segments may be present); spores [20/1/1] (11.9-) 13.1 - 15.5 (-18.4) (11.2-) 11.8 - 13.8 (-17.5) m, (L = 14.3 m; W = 12.9 m; Q = 1.06 - 1.18 (-1.19); Q = 1.11). [Note: It is not known whether the spore measurements of the material seen to date (which had rather common bisterigmate basidia and was in distressed condition when the spores were measured fresh) is typical of this species.]


14.
  1. species NFL6.   Habit is gracile; pileus yellow-olive-brown, virgate outside of the dark brown to Burnt Umber disc region, with the latter tint not spreading very much beyond the umbo, with striations occupying 35-40% of radius; stipe is decorated with red-brown fibrils for the majority of its length in a "flame" or "snakeskin" pattern, becoming yellower when bruised; universal veil not fragile, graying on inner surface; limbus internus (when visible) is very thin, white, and membranous; collected both on Isl. of Newfoundland (at least 2 sites) and in moss of Empetrum heath with dwarf Betula, Abies balsamea, and Picea; spores measure [65/3/3] (9.6-) 10.3 - 13.0 (-17.8) (8.0-) 8.3 - 11.9 (-13.9) m, (L = 11.1 - 12.1 m; L = 11.6 m; W = 9.1 - 10.9 m; W = 9.8 m; Q = (1.03-) 1.07 - 1.32 (-1.37); Q = 1.11 - 1.23; Q = 1.19).   [Note: Lower image showing Labrador specimen in situ is by Dr. Andrus Voitk. nbsp; Note effect of direct sunlight on pigments.]   [ image 14 ]


1
5.  
  1. species NFL7. (=Amanita daimonioctantes Tulloss nom. prov.)   Pileus more orange or orange-tan than fulvous except (often) over center of disc, color saturation varying from pallid to moderately intense, becoming slightly sordid with age; stipe entirely velvety (drying to satiny) or decorated with felted to flocculose fragments of orangish white to orange, subfelted to felted, unitangent limbus internus of universal veil; exterior surface of universal veil liable to intense red- or orange-brown staining; interior of universal veil having inflated cells with walls up to 1.4 mm thick; found both on the Island of Newfoundland and in southern Labrador; spores [55/3/3] (9.8-) 10.5 - 13.1 (-14.3) (9.1-) 9.7 - 12.0 (-14.0) m, (L = 11.0 - 12.0 m; L = 11.6 m; W = 10.3 - 11.1 m; W = 10.8 m; Q = (1.02-) 1.05 - 1.10 (-1.18); Q = 1.07 - 1.08; Q = 1.07); with Abies balsamea and Betula papyrifera, sometimes with Picea glauca in addition. [Note: In this checklist, see also Amanita sp. NFL2 and Amanita sp. NFL8.]   [Note: Sometimes an accidental event in nature performs a very useful dissection on behalf of the taxonomist:   In the two images on the right, above, much of the volval limb was pulled from the stem base during expansion of the fruiting body, One end of the limbus internus remained attached to the part of the limb that was ripped upward.  In consequence, note the silky underside of the membrane that continues to connect a line on the inside of the displaced volva to a point at about midstipe.   The upper side of the membranous connection bears friable bits of orangish white limbus internus.]   [ image 15 ]


16.

  1. species NLF8.   Pileus always lacking markedly browner or fulvous region over center of disc, Pale Yellow-Orange to Light Ochraceous Buff; stipe palely concolorous with pileipellis, at least upper third pulverulent with concolorous material from lamellae margins; limbus internus of universal veil bitangent, membranous, small; exterior surface of universal veil white and less dominated by rusty spots or stains than in A. sp. NFL7; interior of universal veil having inflated cells ??; spores [20/1/1] (10.2-) 10.7 - 12.1 (-12.8) (9.5-) 9.9 - 11.3 (-12.0) m, (L = 11.5 m; W = 10.6 m; Q = (1.05-) 1.06 - 1.13 (-1.14); Q = 1.09). [Note: See also A. cf. flavescens and A. sp. NFL7.]  [ image 16 ]


17.  
  1. species NFL9.  Pileus with umbo and ridges between marginal striae dark brown, with remainder of pileus paler grayish brown and subvirgate, with striations occupying 25% of radius; with universal veil on pileus as rather thick large warts or small patches dirty white, becoming sordid or (sometimes) yellowish sordid with time; universal veil on stipe base as limbate-cupulate volva and irregular patches several cm higher on stipe, outer surface white in lowest portion, above becoming ocher-yellow, surfaces appearing sponge-like under 10 lens; spores [20/1/1] (11.0-) 11.5 - 12.9 (-13.5) (8.5-) 9.4 - 11.0 (-11.7) m, (L = 12.2 m; W = 10.3 m; Q = 1.10 - 1.28 (-1.41); Q = 1.19).  Somewhat reminiscent of A. species IL1, known only from Illinois, USA.   [ image 17 ]


18.

  1. species NFL10. Pileus pale brownish gray, at first darkest over disc and over strations, but more evenly colored at maturity, with striations occupying 25-35% of radius; stipe white, pulverulent near the apex, with irregular white floccose bands down to upper rim of rather robust saccate volva without membranous limbus internus; subhymenium ??; submhymenial base ??; collected both on the Isl. of Newfoundland with Abies balsamea and in Empetrum heath with dwarf Betula and Salix on Saddle Isl., Red Bay, Labrador; spores [60/3/3] (8.4-) 9.6 - 12.0 (-13.2) (7.0-) 8.0 - 11.0 (-11.7) m, (L = 10.3 -11.3 m; L = 10.9 m; W = 9.5 - 10.3 m; W = 9.9 m; Q = (1.04-) 1.06 - 1.15 (-1.43); Q = 1.08 -1.11 ; Q = 1.10).   [Note: Last image showing Labrador specimen in situ is by Dr. Andrus Voitk.]   [ image 18 ]


19.
  1. species NFL11.   Pileus pale tannish gray, a bit darker over disc, uniformly more grayish brown with age, sometimes bearing a graying volval patch, with margin striations occupying 15-20% of radius; universal veil fragmenting easily, becoming gray before maturity, often distinctly pointed at base and subtended by a narrowly expanding cluster of downward directed white hyphae; spores [27/2/1] (9.6-) 9.9 - 12.4 (-14.8) (7.2-) 7.9 - 11.3 (-14.0) m, (L = 10.8 - 11.2 m; L = 11.1 m; W = 9.5 - 9.8 m; W = 9.7 m; Q = (1.06-) 1.08 - 1.24 (-1.50); Q = 1.14 - 1.16; Q = 1.16); reminiscent of A. sinicoflava Tulloss; known only from southern Labrador, occurring in moss well above soil level in mixed forest of Abies balsamea, Betula (including some dwarf species), Larix laricina, and Picea.   [ image 19 ]


Amanita subgenus Lepidella - (spores amyloid)

Amanita sect. Lepidella - None known from the province. orld wide, none known from boreal and subarctic regions.


Amanita sect. Amidella - None known from the province.   Closest records are from western Nova Scotia.


Amanita sect. Phalloideae - Stipe with a soft bulb and a membranous annulus.   Universal veil as a limbate volva (attached to top of bulb).   Cap margin not appendiculate.   No known taxa with clamped basidia.   Many, but not all taxa may contain amatoxins.   All photographs for this section are by R. E. Tulloss.

20. NE USA   

  1. bisporigera G. F. Atk. (= A. virosa sensu auct. amer. boreal.   Usually pure white.  At least in the early part of its season bearing common 2-spored basidia.  Cap turns intense yellow when a drop of 10% KOH is applied.  Spores: [452/19/16] (5.2-) 7.2 - 9.9 (-11.0) (4.8-) 6.5 - 8.6 (-10.0) m, (L = (7.8-) 7.9 - 9.2 (-9.6) m; L = 8.4 m; W = (7.0-) 7.1 - 8.1 (-8.2) m; W = 7.5 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.02 - 1.25 (-1.70); Q = (1.05-) 1.06 - 1.18 (-1.20); Q = 1.11).)   [ image 20 ]


Amanita sect. Validae - Stipe with a soft or firm basal bulb and a membranous annulus.  Universal veil may for a low rim around the margin of the bulb or may be entirely friable.  Cap margin not appendiculate.  No known taxa with clamped basidia.  Marginate species may contain bufotenine or related compounds.  All photographs for this section are by R. E. Tulloss.

2
1

  1. elongata Peck.  Cap usually yellow; stipe usually predominantly white; spores longer and proportionately narrower than those of the flavoconia type variety.  Spores: [113/6/6] (6.8-) 7.5 - 10.5 (-12.5) (4.0-) 5.0 - 6.9 (-8.7) m, (L = 7.9 - 9.6 m; L = 8.8 m; W = 5.3 - 6.4 m; W = 5.8 m; Q = (1.21-) 1.33 - 1.70 (-1.81); Q = 1.45 - 1.58; Q = 1.52).   [ image 21 ]


      22. New Jersey, USA

  2. flavoconia G. F. Atk. var. flavoconia.  Cap usually or yellow-orange to red-orange, stipe usually predominantly yellow.  Spores: [139/8/8] (6.5-) 6.8 - 9.0 (-10.6) (4.8-) 5.0 - 7.0 (-8.9) m, (L = 7.2 - 8.2 (-8.6) m; L = 7.9 m; W = (5.3-) 5.5 - 6.9 m; W = 6.0 m; Q = (1.08-) 1.15 - 1.50 (-1.64); Q = 1.21 - 1.43 (-1.49); Q = 1.33).)   [ image 22 ]


23  
  1. porphyria Alb. & Schwein. : Fr. sensu auct. amer. boreal.  Spores: [137/7/5] (7.5-) 8.0 - 9.8 (-11.2) (7.0-) 7.5 - 9.2 (-11.0) m, (L = (8.5-) 8.6 - 8.9 m; L = 8.9 m; W = (8.0-) 8.1 - 8.5 m; W = 8.3 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.02 - 1.12 (-1.26); Q = 1.05 - 1.07; Q = 1.06). [ image 23 ]
    [Note: Amanita porphyria Alb. & Schwein. : Fr. is a puzzling species. Schweinitz's watercolor preserved at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia shows an entirely gray fruiting body  The original description, however, says that the cap is porphyry colored -- brown with tints of red or purple. The partial veil often becomes gray quickly, and there are often gray fibers on the stipe below the partial veil. The North American material varies from coloration similar to the European one to almost olivaceous brown and with the color evenly distributed or giving the strong impression of embedded radial lines. Material from Newfoundland is often paler than material from other parts of eastern North America and contemporary determination of this species is largely based on the gray partial veil and the marginate bulb at the base of the stem.]


    24.

  2. rubescens sensu auct. amer. boreal. orient. var. rubescens (This entry includes specimens with yellowish underside of the partial veil which do not represent the f. annulosulfurea of Europe. Spores: [40/2/2] (7.0-) 7.3 - 9.5 (-9.8) (5.6-) 5.9 - 7.0 (-7.3) m, (L = 7.9 - 9.1 m; L = 8.5 m; W = 6.4 - 6.6 m; W = 6.5 m; Q = (1.05-) 1.14 - 1.46 (-1.53); Q = 1.23 - 1.38; Q = 1.31).)  [ image 24 ]
    [Note: This species of eastern North America is not A. rubescens Pers. : Fr. of Europe and is possibly most closely related to A. flavorubens (Berk & Mont.) Sacc. (range: central Mexico to Nova Scotia) and A. rubescens var. alba Coker (range: predominantly SE North America).]


Acknowledgments

I extend my sincere gratitude to the Humber Natural History Society, the provincial government of Newfoundland and Labrador, the many collectors at the Newfoundland and Labrador forays in the years 2003-2005 and to the organizers of these forays including the principal guiding spirits Dr. Andrus and Maria Voitk, Corner Brook, Isl. of Newfoundland, and their neighbors and co-conspirators Judy May and her late husband, Dr. Barry May.  Image preparation and page format and editing assistance were supplied by Lindsay Possiel (Roosevelt, New Jersey).

[ Amanita ]  [ Vaginatae ]  [ Phalloideae ]  [ Validae ]
[ meaning of biometric variables ]
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Literature cited

Bas, C. 1969.Morphology and subdivision of Amanita and a monograph of its section Lepidella. Persoonia 5(4): 285-579.

 


Page maintained by R. E. Tulloss.
Most recent change 16 July 2008.
Copyright 2006, 2007, 2008 by Rodham E. Tulloss.
Photographs copyright 2006 by Rodham E. Tulloss except when a different photographer is cited.
In such cases, the copyright (2006) is retained by the named photographer.

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